HTML5 introduction and PDF Tutorials

Advantages of using HTML5, Disadvantages, PDF Tutorials

What is HTML5

This is the latest version of HTML. HTML as well is not a programming language, it is a markup language. The audience for this is any software programmers or any persons around the world. is geared to those who want to edit and write HTML code by hand. Knowing how the nuts and bolts of a webpage fit and work together gives you the means to utilize HTML5’s full potential. Debugging and tweaking the code is easier and it greatly facilitates search engine optimization (SEO).

HTML5 stands for Hypertext Markup Language version 5. World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) published it in October 2014. It is the most recent version of the language or code that explains web pages. HTML5 was created so as to enable various characteristics that the present day websites need. It is simple to adopt as there are no major alterations to the programming version of HTML.

HTML5 is the new standard that is expected to take over the Web. Presently, there are three firms that oversee the description of HTML5, they are:

  1. Web Hypertext Application Technology Working Group (WHATWG). HTML5 specification was made and developed by WHATWG. The development makes for a working relationship with browser vendors as well as other interested parties.
  2. World Wide Web Consortium(W3C) takes care of producing HTML5 specification
  3. Internet Engineering Task Force(IETF) develops html5 webSocket known as API

HTML5 aims to bring sanity to web development issues by putting together regular practices, accepting tools from different web browsers. Simply put, HTML5 is an umbrella name for the next phase of web apps and how effectiveness will be broadened with better style (CSS), better mark-up (HTML) and better communication (JavaScript).

The following are the very popular browsers that are compatible with most of the HTML5 characteristics. It is important to note that not all of these browsers enable all the HTML5 characteristics.

  1. Google Chrome 10.0 and higher
  2. Firefox 4.0 and higher
  3. Internet Explorer 8.0 and higher

Characteristics of HTML5

Multimedia Enabled

HTML5 enables a browser to play video and audio files..

New HMTL5 Input Element Types

In HTML5 a few recently made input types have been included, Input types are useful in receiving the input in a desired format. Input tools are very important in data based web applications.

Canvas in HTML5

HTML5 is canvas areas enabled. Canvas is a rectangular area, which allows pixel level work such as a line, circle, box, performing graphics, etc.

Editable Contents in HTML5

This feature lets the end users edit the HTML control’s make up. This type of feature allows developers to build web pages that contain sections such as HTML editor, notes etc.



  1. Mutuality:Due to usability purpose, the website made by developers are becoming social everyday like facebook, twitter etc. Till now they have only the option to integrate it with the help of Flash or Silverlight, Flex or javascript like tools. But these consume so much time to develop and even the complexity of web application also increased. But now with the help of HTML5 it is possible to embed video and audio, high quality drawings, charts and animation and many other rich content without using any plugins and third party programmas as the functionality is built into the browser.
  2. Cleaner Markup or Improved Code:HTML 5 will enable web designers to use cleaner, neater code; we can remove most div tags and replace them with semantic HTML 5 elements.
  3. Consistency:As websites adopt the new HTML5 elements we will see more greater consistency in terms of the HTML used to code a web page on one site compared to another. This will make it more easier for designers and developers to immediately understand how a web page is structured.
  4. Fulfill the need of Web Application:Main focus of HTML5 is to make easier application with easy front-ends, drag and drop tools, discussion boards, wikis and other useful elements.


  1. Lack of Cross- Browser Capability: This HTML may not be supportive to all browsers.
  2. May not be supportive to Legal Browsers. We all know that HTML5’s main commitment was to support and has compatibility with old browsers, but it is not completely supportive with the major browsers. It is also talented to only some extent like the legacy versions of the IE (Internet Explorers) are not supporting with HTML5.
  3. Restrictions to Graphics and Animations. With the help of Adobe Flash, we are able to develop rich graphics and animations, but when it comes to use HTML 5 as option, you are restricted up to some limit as it does not provide that much of flexibility as Flash. Therefore, you can find lots of developers, who are still opting for JavaScript and CSS to develop graphics and animation.

PDF Tutorials

AngularJS introduction and PDF Tutorials

Advantages of AnjularJs, Disadvantages , PDF Tutorials

What is Anjularjs

 AngularJS is a very powerful JavaScript library. It is used in Single Page Application (SPA) projects. It extends HTML DOM with extra virtue and makes it more active to user actions. AngularJS is open source, completely free, and used by thousands of developers around the world.

AngularJS (commonly known as “Angular.js” or “AngularJS 1.X“) is a JavaScript-driven open-source front-end web application methodology majorly maintained by Google as well as a community of people and enterprises to tackle many of the challenges faced in developing one-page applications.

The AngularJS methodology functions by first interpreting the HTML page, which has additional custom tag attributes embedded into it. Those attributes are interpreted by Angular as instructions to bind input or output components of the page to a model that is shown by. One can manually configure the values of those JavaScript variables within the code, or retrieve them from dynamic or static JSON resources.

According to Libscore, an analytics service of JavaScript, AngularJS is applied on the websites of Wolfram Alpha, Sprint, Walgreens, NBC, Intel, ABC News, and nearly 12,000 of 1 million sites tested in 2016 October.  AngularJS sits on the 6th mark among the most starred project of all time according to GitHub ratings.

AngularJS is created on the assumption that declarative programming is to be used to create user interfaces and connect software components, while imperative programming is better fitted to describing an application’s business logic. The methodology changes and enlarges traditional HTML to present dynamic content via dual-way data-binding that allows for the automatic synchronization of models and views. Thus, AngularJS does not emphasize clear DOM manipulation with the aim of improving performance and testability.

AngularJS’ structure goals are as follows:

  • To disintegrate DOM manipulation from application logic. The difficulty of this is dramatically affected by the way the code is structured.
  • To disintegrate the client part of an application from the server part. This lets development work to go on in parallel, and allows for reuse of the two parts.
  • To provide structure for the journey of developing an application: from designing the UI, through the stage of writing the business logic, and lastly to testing.

Angular applies the MVC pattern to separate data, presentation and logic components. With the use of dependency injection, Angular injects traditionally server-part services, such as view-based controllers, into client-part web applications. The load on the server is greatly reduced as a result. AngularJS dual-way binding of data is its most notable characteristic, largely taking care of templating responsibilities of the server backend.  AngularJS detects changes in models by likening the recent values with values stored in the past in a process of dirty-checking, unlikeBackbone.js and Ember.js that activate listeners the moment the model values are replaced.


  • Help in creating single page application in a clean and effective way.
  • It helps in data binding that gives rich and solid feedbacks.
  • Testing unit is testable.
  • Enable reusable components.
  • Controllers and purely done on the basis of JAVA script that does the business processing.


  • JAVA being a plan, application written is not safe.
  • This is not degradable. If the user of your application disables JavaScript, then nothing would be visible, except the basic page.

AngularJS PDF tutorials

Node.JS introduction tutorial and PDF training guides

Advantages of Node.JS , Disadvantages , PDF Tutorials.

What is Node. JS

Node.JS specially built to work on Google chrome browser only. It is a rather powerful JAVA script platform that runs only on chrome. It is used to develop an indebt web application like video streaming sites, single page application and other web applications. This tutorial software is completely free and can be used by thousands of people or developers around the world. Node.js is a run time system for creating server side applications. This software is developed specially for software programmers to learn the basics of Node.js and to make them do it in a simple and realistic way. It is designed in such a way that a good and clear understanding will be attained.

Why Node.js is being used?

  • JAVASCRIPT is already known to all. By working on the Java, you get to gain knowledge both mentally and practically. Javascript is in line with any computers and as a language it is eating the world.
  • Very fast. This software of jAVA is mostly designed to be used for Google V8 engined developed to be used for Google chrome. The real magic behind Node.js is the event loop. For developers, to get a faster progress, Javasript on the basis of Node.js is the best which is specially used only in chrome and no other browser.
  • Tooling: Npm is the Node.js package manager and it is excellent. It does, of course, is parallel package managers from other ecosystems, but npm is faster, booming, and logical. It does a great job at defining and fix the project dependencies. It keeps packages alone from other projects, avoiding version strife.
  • Streaming Data: This software is good in getting high range of data without any discrepancies.

Disadvantages of Node.JS:

  • Single Threaded: here one need not care about the synchronization between threads which means that in cases of any problems, the programmers themselves has to solve those problems.
  • Lack of Maturity: Most of the core libraries have reached the status of stable, and you can trust them to usually do the right thing. But the ecosystem itself is still fairly immature. It’s also not that easy to assess the trait of a particular module (core or otherwise) because of the lack of features for ensuring the quality of code from JavaScript itself.
  • Hard to make things fault oriented: In JAVA script there are no mechanisms to resolve the errors. For any software particular mechanisms are not found to solve all the problems to make no errors in the coming future.

PDF Tutorials

Maven introduction tutorial and PDF training materials

Advantages of Maven,Disadvantages , Maven PDF Tutorials

What is Maven: Apache Maven is a tool used in software project management. It mainly aimed for Java related projects.

  • Helps in working on a project that is done easy and faster
  • This maven projects can be communal to other team of maven projects.
  • It helps to give information about the project in the form of log document, dependency list and so on

Maven is a comprehension tool and software project management basically used with Java-driven projects and can also be used to manage projects in other programming languages such as Ruby and C#. In Yiddish, the word Maven means “accumulator of Knowledge”.  The Maven project is accommodated by the Apache Software Foundation, where it was in time past component of the Jakarta Project. Maven helps manage documentation, builds, reporting, software configuration management (SCM), dependencies, distribution and releases.

Jason Van Zyl created Maven in 2002 as part of the Apache Turbine project. But in 2003, it became an Apache Software Foundation project. Many versions of Maven were released after that; these include Maven v1.0, v2.0 and v3.0.

Project Object Model (POM) is the basic unit in Maven. Maven’s functionality also depends on plug-ins, which create a group of goals that can be implemented. Essentially, all work is carried out by plug-ins. There are many Maven plug-ins for testing, building, running a Web server, SCM etc. Plug-ins are arranged in the POM file, where some primary plug-ins are added by default.

Configuration for the task is provided by the user when using Maven, while the configurable plug-ins do the real job of cleaning target directories, generating API documentation, compiling the project, running unit tests etc. Generally, plug-ins are not supposed to be written by users.

Many integrated development environments (IDEs) provide add-ons or plug-ins for Maven, hence enabling it to compile projects from within the Integrated Development Environment (IDE).

Characteristics of Maven

  1. Maven is a standard, simplified way to build projects in which unwanted details are hidden
  2. It is a consistent build system, wherein a standard method is adhered to when developing any project
  3. It is made of Quality project information, such as unit test reports, cross referenced sources and dependency lists
  4. It has the ability to handle multiple projects at the same time.

Benefits of Maven:

  1. Better Dependency Management: Here no need to worry about transitive dependencies. Maven excels in this as it is popular among many users and also easily accessible and easy to use without any discomfort. When the user depend on one of thousands or hundreds of projects, then here comes the role of Maven to make to work on multiple project easily. Maven has high degree of domination and support.
  2. More powerful builds: Maven’s default plugins and life cycle allow a project to perform common build actions without touching a build configuration file. One can also clean the files and form a class files from the project. They also help in generating Javadoc for the project and also help to analyze any discrepancies that happen in the project.
  3. Once the maven is being purchased, then n number of person can use it and later it can be reused also. It also gives you the confidence that you have adopted the best practice in the entire industry.
  4. When using Maven, it is simple to create an element and combine it to a single project.
  5. Maven projects are easily maintainable as they have scanty wonder and go on the same and single process.


  • Study achieves are not safe always.
  • Learning maven is long and time consuming in comparison with ANT.
  • If in a project Maven is not used properly then there will be chances for more duplication.

PDF Tutorials

Informatica Introduction tutorial and PDF training Guides

What is Informatica

Informatica is a tool used for extracting, transforming and for loading process. It is a easy to use tool where it has got simple visual interface like visual basics.
Advantages , Disadvantages, Components, PDF Tutorials
Here one has to just drag and drop the object to draw a flow process  for transforming and extracting the data. This process flow is called mapping and once done it can be run as and when needed. It helps to move large data in an effective way many times better than any other data movement. Informatica has got the the ability to convert raw collection of data to one useful data that can be applicable to all.

Informatica is a broadly used ETL(Extraction, Transformation and Loading) tool for extracting the source data and loading it into the target after applying the needed transformation. It is important to note that The Informatica PowerCenter tool for ETL is also regarded as Informatica. Informatica Powercenter does majorly the job of Data integration. It can connect & gather data from distinct heterogeneous source and process the data.

The most recent version of Informatica PowerCenter is 9.6.0. The following are the different editions for the PowerCenter:

  • Standard edition
  • Premium edition
  • Advanced edition

The parts within Informatica help in extracting data from its source, changing it as it concerns business needs and loading it into a target data warehouse.

Informatica makes use of service driven architecture that has the ability to share services and resources among several machines.

Samsung, Allianz, Fannie Mae, ING, and U.S Air Force are some of the major clients who use Informatica Powercenter as a tool for data integration. The popular tools available in the industry that rival Informatica are Microsoft SSIS, Ab Initio, Oracle OWB and IBM Datastage.

Informatica was created by Informatica Corp. The main components of Informatica are its server, repository server, client tools and repository. The Informatica repository server and server make up the ETL layer, which finishes the ETL processing.

The PowerCenter server completes projects based on flow of work developed by work flow managers. One can monitor the work flows with the use of a work flow monitor. With the aid of mapping designer, tasks can be structured to create mapping between source and target. Mapping is defined as a pictorial representation of data flow to target from source. Transformations such as filtering, aggregation, and joining are the main examples of transformation.

Informatica presents you with a rich set of features such as operations at row level on data, integration of data from semi-structured, multiple structured, or unstructured systems, data operation scheduling. It also possesses the metadata feature; hence the information about data operations and the process are preserved as well.

Components of Informatica:

  • Power Exchange
  • Power centre
  • Power centre connect
  • Power Channel
  • Metadata exchange
  • Power Analyzer
  • Super Glue


  • Communicates with all major data sources
  • Handles large data effectively
  • Reuse-ability of the product
  • Resources are available in the market all throughout
  • Can be run on Windows or Unix environment.


  • If one users are not aware of handling large data at a time, then it will be time consuming and will lose most of the data that is needed by other members of the group
  • If the software is not able to use in windows or unix format, then it will be difficult to store a large number of data that are accurate and useful. The users have to make sure that their systems have supports the file. Otherwise it will be a great loss.

PDF Tutorials

Check Informatica Interview Questions also.

Data Warehousing Introduction and PDF tutorials

What is Data Warehouse:

This determines capturing the data from various sources for analyzing and accessing but not generally the end users who really want to access them sometimes from local data base.Check its advantages, disadvantages and PDF tutorials.

Data warehouse with (DW) as short form is a collection of corporate information and data obtained from external data sources and operational systems which is used to guide corporate decisions. A data warehouse is structured to support business decisions by permitting you to consolidate, analyse and report data at different aggregate levels. Data is sent into the Data warehouse through the stages of extraction, transformation and loading.

Data warehousing is the act of extracting data from many dissimilar sources into one area transformed based on what the decision support system requires and later stored in the warehouse. For instance, a company stores information pertaining to its employees, developed products, employee salaries, customer sales and invoices, information. The CEO of an enterprise might want to ask a question concerning the most recent cost-reduction procedures; the answers will mean analyzing all of this data.

As a result, this is a major service of the data warehouse, which is allowing executives to make business decisions from all these very different crude data items.

It’s obvious that Data warehousing has the capability to influence future vital making of decisions. As illustrated in the above scenario, an enterprise executive can use warehouse data to find out the demand of a particular product by the market, data of sales based on geographical zone or answers any other kind of inquiries put forward. This gives insight about needed steps to more efficiently market a given product. Data warehouse has blocks of historical data unlike a working data store that could be analyzed to reach crucial business decisions. The efficiency of data warehousing makes many big corporations to use it despite its financial implication and effort.

Difference Between Data Warehouse and regular Database

The regular databases are specialized in maintaining uncompromising accuracy of data in the present by quickly updating data real-time. Meanwhile, Data warehouses are created to give a long-range perspective of data over time. They look off transaction size and specialize in data clustering.

There are two approaches to data warehousing:

One is Top Down approach, which spins down the data for specific users after the completion of data warehouse has been created. The second one is Bottom Up approach, that builds the data first, and them combines all of the data to one to an all encompassing data warehouse.

Data warehousing  is basically collection of data that supports better management decision making for gaining better organizational goals and efficiency.


  • Controls data which helps it to be clean and protected.
  • Indexes of multiple types
  • It involved multiple options of query processing.
  • Provides full security of data and the ability to access them in a proper way.


  • When data users lose control over their data, then security and privacy issues will arise leading to leakage of their data.
  • Adding new data takes lot of time and includes cost.
  • No data drill down capabilities.
  • Cannot actively monitor changes in a data.

PDF Tutorials

Datastage tool tutorial and PDF training Guides


It is tool set for designing, developing and running applications that populate one or more table in a data ware house or mart is a Datastage. They have 3 added benefits:

  1. Allows the researchers to have a private are where the information can be viewed only by themselves and their leaders. They can save or share the files that are available for the whole research group.
  2. Helps in annotating the file and the availability to access these files outside their homes too.
  3. They have the option to send data for permanent storage.

DataStage is one of the many extensively used extraction, transformation and loading (ETL) tools in the data warehousing industry. This tool can extract information from dissimilar sources, carry out transformations as per a business’s requirements and transfer the data into chosen data warehouses. It is widely used for development and maintenance of Datawarehouses and Datamarts.

A corporation can use Datastage in any of the following ways:

  • Integration of Data from different sources
  • Development and maintenance of datamarts and datawarehouse
  • Data Migration from various sources

DataStage is centralised filestore having three added advantages:

  1. Security controls which allow researchers to own a “private” area only having access to themselves and the leader of the group as well as “shared” and “collaborative” areas to load files of use to the entire research group.
  2. Web interface which allows users to annotate their files, and reach data from out of their “home” computer.
  3. An option to transfer data to a repository for long lasting storage.

DataStage has been reduced to the mere essentials, to be as inconspicuous as possible. There exists no “client” software to download, little needed metadata fields, and a file system that develops on formats the user should have already known.

Whatever your discipline (Computer Science, Chemistry, Mongolian Studies, Fine Art), DataStage would let you save, find and retrieve your data without disturbing your work. 

DataStage Parallel Extender has a parallel structure with which it processes data. The two major types of parallelism all pied in DataStage PX are partition parallelism and pipeline. The ability to process data in a parallel fashion hastens data processing to a great extent.

DataStage Parallel Extender makes use of a variety of stages through which source data is processed and reapplied into focus databases. These are explained in terms of terabytes. Besides stages, DataStage PX makes use of containers in order to reuse the job parts and stages to run and plan multiple jobs simultaneously.
The popularly used sequences in DataStage Parallel Extender are the following

  • Transformer
  • Aggregator
  • Data set
  • Copy
  • Change apply
  • Modify
  • Filter
  • Join
  • Merge
  • Look up

Datastage provides a GUI(Graphical User Interface) driven interface to carry out the Extract Transform Load work.

The ETL work is carried out through jobs. A DataStage job can be referred to as an implementable unit of work that can be gathered & executed individually or as a component of a stream data flow.

A job is made of various stages that are connected via links.

A stage serves many purposes, comparable to database stages to link to target systems and source, running stages to carry out many data transformations, file stages so as to link to many file systems and so on.

Links are used to bring together various stages in a job to describe the flow of data.

End users can connect to Datastage as a mapped drive such as Mac. Linux or Windows machine and also can be viewed as through a web interface. Whichever your department of work is, Datastage helps you to store, find and retrieve your data without any other problems coming in its ways. Three basic files mostly used for Datastage :PRIVATE-  basically those files which can be viewed by the main owner or the administration responsible for that particular file, SHARED-  visible to all group members where the format is read only. No editions can be made and last is COLLABORATIVE- where the files can be viewed by all members  of the group where here it can  be edited as well as read only.

PDF Tutorials

Also check the DataStage interview questions.

Cognos BI Software Tutorial and PDF training guides

What is COGNOS? 

Cognos is IBMs business intelligence and performance management software suites. This software helps the business users without any technical knowledge to compile corporate data, analyse them  and to finally give it for reporting. As this Cognos is built in open standards, the software product can be used in both relational and multidimentional data sources which includes Microsoft, SAP, ORACLE etc. After reading the basic introduction check its advantages, disadvantages and PDF tutorials about Cognos Software.

What is Cognos

Cognos was created by IBM to be used as a performance management and business intelligence software suite. It was created to help business personnel who lack technical knowledge in big enterprises to source corporate data, analyze it and produce reports that can enable the business make concrete decisions.

Cognos is made up of about thirty six (36) software products. It can be used with relational as well as multidimensional data sources from multiple vendors, including NCR Teradata Microsoft, Oracle and SAP because it is built on open standards.

The software suite is a web-based, composite business intelligence suite that supplies a very effective toolset for mining, analyzing, score carding and monitoring of data, events and metrics. It enables a business to be high performing and analytics based, making it able to forecast or discover movements in the market and subsequently react to them with well grounded decisions.

The software suite contains the following basic components:

  • Cognos Connection – this is also known as  Cognos Web Portal, the beginning of all functions supplied in the suite
  • Query Studio – this allows for easy queries and self-service reports that answer all basic business questions.
  • Report Studio – used to create reports on management, which  comprise charts, lists, maps and repeat functions
  • Analysis Studio – used for analyzing and understanding information about a business event or action, identifies trends and helps users understand anomalies and deviations, also contains OLAP functionalities, among others.
  • Event Studio – a notification tool which reports on enterprise events in real-time.

IBM released Cognos 10 in October 2010, which fits Cognos with other IBM products, such as Lotus Connect and SPSS Predictive Analytics. Cognos 10 has mobile capability, letting users access a full version of Cognos from mobile devices like Smartphones and tablets.

There is also Cognos Express in the market, which is created for small to mid-sized firms. This edition allows firms to make use of the functions of Cognos 8 BI, and also include budgeting, planning and forecasting functions.

Over 23,000 companies around the world use Cognos products and it is being consistently rated in Gartner Magic Quadrants for Business Intelligence in the “leaders” category.

 Cognos Unit testing includes:

  • Checking of the data. You need to match the data that is required.
  • Checking on the format of the data. Checking of decimal places, time and date format etc.
  • Checking on the font size as each software testing font size plays a role as for the software or the system to understand.
  • Check the alignment of columns. Only when it is typed with clear alignment only it will be easy to read and interpret.
  • Check on whether the page breaks and set ups are put in order or not.
  • Check whether conditional formatting is applied correctly or not.

Cognos process is basically putting things in order to get the data content in the correct format for the software can be readable and extracted.


This offers a wide range of benefits to business organization which helps the employees to perform their tasks at optimum level.

  • An Increase to Revenue Streams: Incoming revenue increases once the organization chooses to embed the IBM software through streamlined functionalities and when proper resource allocation is being applied. By using this software, an organization can cut down the cost fir software developments.
  • Facility to explore information: in cases of large companies, they get large data where certain managers and officials don’t know which data is accurate and how to process them when that data is required. Even they want to access the required data, they may not use the required tools for accessing. Cognos software is helpful in that case for providing the business users to access the information that they require. This allows them to get the data that they want, assemble them in an order and personalize them accordingly in the way they want for viewing the data for their purposes.
  • Great Understanding of the Situation: when a data is given, the business users should understand them as they have to understand and analyze them that gives them a better insight of the current situation and a better understanding of the overall business solutions and functions. This understanding will help in building better report and which can help in supporting the decision making for improving the business and also in achieving the goals of the organization effectively.
  • Comprehensive Analysis: This software helps the organization in getting the entire scenario being aware and also with tools that they have to be aware on with great understanding, the most importantly the bottom line employees. It also helps the business users to analyze them on the impact of the scenario.
  • An Enhanced Decision making: Decision making is done in an organization where it runs in crisis or to improve the quality of business of the employees. It is crucial that the management have the access to right tools and accurate information. This software provides all that is available allowing the organization to make more elaborate decision making to improve the efficiency for attaining competitive advantage.


  • Excel format is not supported by this software. So in this case host names has to be changed from the gateway.
  • Multi dimensional analysis cannot be supported.

Cognos PDF tutorials and Training Guides

Also check Cognos Interview Questions.

Scrum Methodology Software Development Tutorial and PDF references

Scrum is a management and controls process that cuts through complexity to focus on building software that meets business needs. They are basically small teams that focus on working in an intensive and interdependent work environment. Here you can refer the advantages, disadvantages, methodology and PDF tutorials about it. Scrum itself is a framework for effective team collaboration on complex software projects. They need real time and fast decision making process which is need for getting accurate information and on actual events. Teams in the organization work together in a team focusing on the organizational goals that they need to achieve. The team is hard working and goal oriented even though it is a small team work.

Scrum is a repetitive and incremental framework for project management majorly used in very active software development. Scrum methodology gives premium to functional software, the freedom to change along with new business realities, collaboration and communication. It is a flexible, holistic strategy of product development in which a team of developers works as a unit in order to accomplish an objective that is common to them all,

challenging assumptions of the “traditional, sequential approach” to product development.

There are three primary roles in scrum methodology and they include:  Product owner, Team member and Scrum master;

  • Product owners relate vision of the product to the development team and stand in customer interests through requirements and prioritization
  • Scrum masters behave as a connection between the team and the product owner. Their main aim is to remove any blockade that may prevent the team from reaching its set goals. Scrum masters help the team to remain creative and productive.
  • Scrum teams usually comprise seven cross-operational members. For example, software projects have analysts, software engineers, architects, programmers, UI designers, QA experts and testers.

Scrum teams also involve stakeholders and managers besides the major roles. These players don’t have any official roles in the scrum and are involved in the process only once in a while. Their roles are often known as subordinate roles.

The scrum methodology has three main artefacts which are:

  • Product Backlog: This is a high-level list maintained throughout the entire project. It is used to join backlogged items.
  • Sprint Backlog: This contains the list of work the team needs to carry out during the successive sprints. The features are broken down into tasks, which are normally between four and 16 hours of work.
  • Burn Down: This chart shows the remaining work in the sprint backlog. It provides a simple view of progress of sprint and is updatable every day.

Scrum is a feedback-based empirical methodology which is, like all empirical process control approaches, supported by the three foundations of Inspection, Transparency and Adaptation. These three foundations require openness and trust in the team, which these five values of Scrum support


Members of the team and their stakeholders consent to be open about their work and any issues they encounter.


Members of the team individually promise to reach their team goals, in every Sprint.


Team members know they are courageous to work through disagreement and issues together so they can do what is right.


There is respect among team members to be capable technically as well as to work with the right intent.


Members of the Team concentrate exclusively on the goals of their team and the Sprint Backlog; no work should be done outside their backlog.


  • Agile scrum helps in saving time and money.
  • Due to short sprint and constant feedback, it is easier to cope with the changes.
  • Iterative in nature as it requires constant feedback.
  • Delivery of products at constant time. No delay in delivery.
  • Overhead cost in process management is minimal leading to quicker and cheap results.
  • Receives higher customer satisfaction.


Scrum Master: Acts as a facilitator of the product owner and the team. The scrum master helps remove the difficulties that come across the team in achieving the organizational goals. This will help the team in being active and making sure that the work is being reported visibly to the project manager.

Prioritization of tasks: The scrum master looks after the working of the employees in the team. As the team works together, easiness and proper prioritization of the work will be delivered at the correct time. The scrum model seeks daily scrums as the way to synchronize the work of the team members as they have to discuss the work of the sprint.

 Daily Scrum Meeting: All team members should attend the meeting on daily basis including the Scrum Master and the product owner. This is the meeting which has a fixed time not more than 15 minutes and it basically deals with the task that they have to do, will do and identifies any impediments to the progress.

Review of the work: The team conducts a sprint review during which the team derives the new functionality to PO or any other stakeholders that can provide reliable feedback that can improve the functionality of the sprint goals.

This feedback loops with scrum software development which may result in the changes to the freshly delivered functionality but likely to result in revising  or adding items to the product  backlog.


  • Without a clear definition, it becomes difficult for the scrum master to plan, structure and organize a project that lacks clear definition.
  • Scrum is a small team in an organization and if the team members are not active enough to work together or are not committed then there can be a loss to finishing the organizational goals and also chances for project failure.
  • Sprint relentlessly follow each other in rapid succession and might lead to burn out.
  • As all the teams work together to gain goals and if one or two members of the team leaves during needed times, it will totally affect the project where they have to find one with the same pace without any training as they have to go all over again which takes lot of time in finishing the work on time.
  • To get the quality of work is hard if one of the team is not active toward the work and does not report the work to the Project manager on time.
  • Proper framework can be done only when there are experienced team members where they can work fast and finish on time the goals.
  • If daily meetings are being conducted, then there wont be anything to deliver as the work they have to plan which require lot of planning on how to work and to finish at the given time.

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